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Volume : 40 Issue : 157 2022

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Author :Hanan Khalaf
Discipline :Philosophy

"Group" from an Existential Phenomenological Perspective: Iris Young Approach as a Case Study (in Arabic).

Group, considered one of the human phenomena, has led to several cognitive investigations, due to its importance in understanding the collective self and its inter-self relationships in the world. This paper aims to reveal how a group is formed as a concept in the human mind, and draws upon the philosopher Iris Marion Young's criticism of some models represented in “aggregate” and “institution", and offered to account for the concept of group. Since Young conceived the group phenomenon as a state of "affinity" between individuals, which is akin to Heidegger's concept of "thrownness", Young, does not provide any details regarding such an approach. Accordingly, this paper seeks to continue where the philosopher left off by revealing the state of "affinity" which establishes the significance of a group, based on Heidegger's two concepts of "Dasein" and "They". Thus, the appropriate method which can uncover such aspects embodied in the collective consciousness for individuals is existential phenomenology. This method exceeds the individualistic approaches supporting “aggregate” and “institution” models, which failed to unearth such an embodiment.
This paper is divided into three main sections. The first presents Young's analysis of the shortcomings of the individualistic models of group. The second deals with group phenomenon and the crisis of scientific methods, which paves the way to offer the concept of "Dasein" as a new perspective for understanding the self. The third investigates the collective self, guided by Heidegger's concept of "They" which reveals the structures of social and cultural understanding shared by some individuals, which, in turn, paves the way for the possibility of reforming groups.
In this paper, it has been possible to overcome the problems posed by examining the bases of forming group through the concepts of "Dasein" and "They". Through these two concepts, it has been possible to discover structures of social and cultural understanding among group individuals which are irreducible into individual attitudes. Furthermore, this study lends support to Young's approach by discussing some contemporary approaches on Mind, as demonstrated by comparing Searle's concept of collective intentionality with Heidegger's concept of "They".
Keywords: Existential Phenomenology, Group, Iris Marion Young, Martin Heidegger, Embodied meaning.
 

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Author :Elhoucine Akhlifa
Discipline :Arabic Language and Literature

The Interaction between the Narrator and the Space in Rachid Yahyaoui’s Diaries (in Arabic).

This study attempts to investigate the interactive dimension between the narrator who is identical with his reader and the Egyptian (Cairo) and Moroccan spaces, in both Rachid Yahyaoui’s diaries “The Other Cairo”, published by the Arab Press Agency in 1997 and “Cairo as I lived” published by Dar Al-Tawhidi in Rabat in 2016. The narrator Rachid moved from the Moroccan city of Benslimane to Cairo to pursue his postgraduate studies at Ain Shams University. So, he seized the opportunity of his stay there to document his academic and personal experience, and monitor his admiration for the cultural and social Egyptian milestones, and his emotional inclination to the Morocco terrains, where he opened his eyes to life.
In view of a lack of critical studies to define the book, and to reveal its scientific value and where it fits in the circle of the diaries genre, this paper comes to inquire about Yahyaoui’s conception of the boundaries that separate it from other genres, and to highlight the relationship between the narrative self with space. On these grounds, the paper investigates the consciousness and manifestations of space in the author’s sentiments, according to the descriptive approached, supported with a psycho-structural analysis, the manifestations of space-related polarities and how they overlap, and the aspects of the working memory in expressing the feelings of alienation and nostalgia for the family and the homeland.
Among the conclusions the paper has made is that these diaries project a new conception of self-writing according to this literary genre, which should receive a creative and critical attention at a time when the individual initiatives and personal writings surfaced up, and when the fast-unfolding daily events and developments are exhausting the memory. This calls for writing diaries, not only by following its traditional documentary pattern, but also by following its new trend, which Yahyaoui desired to consolidate, when he invested in the memory with the support of imagination, when he capitalized on the distinctive features of the art of travel, the biography and the novel, and when he wrote in a certain narrative style that worthwhile to be read and to be critically read. This is not unusual if the critic is quite knowledgeable on the literary genres, their boundaries, and the historical developments they have undergone.
It is hoped that this study will instigate other investigations that can shed light on the issues relevant to the two books and their intricate problems, and that can strike a balance between the characterization of Cairo in these diaries and other writings produced on such an ancient city.
Keywords: Interaction, Narrator, Character, Space, Diaries, Narrative imagination, Transit vision, Time.
 

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Author :Moncef Khemiri
Discipline :French Language and Literature

L'Ombre du Soleil de Taleb Alrefai, au Croisement des Genres et des Formes Littéraires (in French).

Les études critiques qui ont été consacrées au roman de Taleb Al-Refai, L’Ombre du soleil (Ẓil ʾal-Šams dans l’original arabe), paru en de 1998 et traduit en français en 2018, se sont généralement focalisées sur le contenu social de cette œuvre qui dénonce avec audace et sincérité les conditions difficiles dans lesquelles vit la main-d’œuvre étrangère au Koweït, comme en témoigne par exemple par l’article "Lire L’ombre du soleil" d’Ahmed Al-Arabi, publié dans le journal syrien Al-Ayyam, le 24 juillet 2018. Cette lecture exclusivement sociologique s’est confirmée aussi lors de la rencontre organisée par l’Institut du Monde Arabe à Paris avec l’écrivain, à l’occasion de la parution de son roman traduit en français, en avril 2018. Est-ce à dire que ce roman ne tient son originalité que de son contenu social seulement? Non, sans doute pas, car c’est la nouveauté et la diversité des formes narratives que l’auteur a orchestrées dans son roman qui retiennent aussi l’attention. Pourquoi l’écrivain se met-il en scène, et sous son vrai nom, dans ce roman censé traiter d’une cause collective, extérieure? Pourquoi y pratique-t-il l’art de la mise en abyme? Pourquoi y fait-il appel à l’autofiction?
C’est pour répondre à toutes ces questions que nous avons choisi d’étudier le croisement des genres et des formes littéraires dans ce roman, car L’ombre du soleil ne tire pas seulement son originalité de son engagement social mais aussi du savant mélange de formes narratives puisées autant dans le roman traditionnel que dans le roman moderne. C’est surtout par ces techniques narratives que ce roman a séduit Henri Godard qui a écrit dans la préface à la traduction française: "Cette dimension de témoignage de l’exploitation sociale, si impressionnante soit-elle, n’exclut pas la poursuite de effets littéraires dans le domaine de la recherche du roman occidental le plus contemporain."
Nous montrons que l’objectif que l’auteur a poursuivi au travers ces techniques romanesques modernes n’est pas tant d’imiter les écrivains occidentaux, que d’approfondir la réflexion sur deux sujets qui lui tiennent à cœur, d’une part la nature de la relation que l’artiste créateur entretient avec la société d’une part, et d’autre part la relation de l’écrivain avec son propre univers romanesque, avec les personnages de fiction sortis de son imagination et qui peuvent être tentés de s’émanciper de sa tutelle pour vivre leur propre vie.
Il en résulte alors une œuvre dotée d’une structure narrative complexe où l’autobiographie, l’autofiction, le récit dans le récit et le métarécit plongent le lecteur dans l’univers mental de l’écrivain et lève le voile sur  le processus sur le processus obscur de la création romanesque et sur les ambigüités des postures idéologiques.
Mots clés: Roman koweïtien, récit à la première personne, travailleurs immigrés, roman social, autobiographie, autofiction, mise en abyme, art narratif, création romanesque, intellectuel organique, narratologie.

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Author :Khalil Issa
Discipline :Arabic Language and Literature

The Memory of Place in the Songs of the First Intifada (The Hijarah Intifada): A Neo-historicist Perspective (in Arabic).

The concept of “place” and the “place” itself constitute the cornerstone of the First Intifada (i.e. The Hijarah Intifada). This “Intifada” broke out on the 9th of December 1987 and spread throughout Palestine, from its farthest North to its farthest South. Thus, “Place” was definitive and very present in the continued Palestinian people’s struggle to defend it and to get rid of the occupier.
The importance of this study lies in the fact that it depicts the unfolding memory of this "place" in songs that were written in Arabic, and which were quite popular throughout the First Intifada. The study aims to answer two main questions: How is “place” portrayed as a natural scene in the songs of the First Intifada? And to what extent did the “place” show resistance? To answer these two questions, a neo-historicist approach has been adopted as the main methodology and used to analyze “place”. The research sample consists of 22 songs, after the elimination of those songs that touched on different places, as well as those popular ones that were composed in the colloquial Palestinian dialect.   
The study has concluded that “place” in the songs of the First Intifada was not only a geographical and natural landscape; rather, it was an instrument of resistance that interacted with its inhabitants, who united with it, and where both of them fused into one entity and where each one of them became an extension to the other.
Keywords: The Intifada, The memory of the place, Intifada songs, New Historicism.
 

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Author :Mahmood Almousawi, Sara Qadir, Menawer Alrajehi
Discipline :Mass Communication

Global Trends in Self-Regulation of the Right to Press Photo: "An Analytical Study with a Proposal for a Code of Conduct that Regulates the Right to Photo in the Kuwaiti Press" (in Arabic).

This study aims at presenting a proposal for a code of conduct that can contribute to controlling and regulating the right to the image in the Kuwaiti Press, by drawing on the ethical charters and professional codes of conduct issued by international media organizations.
The study also aims at addressing the nature of right to photo, and identifying the restrictions on the person’s authority to object to having his photo taken, in addition to highlighting the nature of right to photo in Kuwait’s legislation. Finally, the study aims at identifying the basis for a journalist’s civil liability for publishing photos.

The descriptive-analytical method has been adopted in order to describe and analyze texts related to the right to image in codes of conduct - the study sample - to reveal the mechanisms of self-regulation of the right to image in the field of media. The inductive approach has also been drawn upon, with the aim of tracking and extrapolating the texts related to the subject of the study, and which regulate the right to image in codes of conduct issued by a sample of international media organizations. Then, the study moved on to explore the possibility of monitoring the parameters of self-regulation of this right.
In light of all of this, the regulation of the press image in the professional codes of conduct and ethical charters related to 10 international media and press organizations has been monitored and translated. The study concluded that these ethical codes, including the relevant standards and rules for press image reflect a clear interest taken by international media organizations in self-regulation of the right to image in light of these institutions’ recognition of the importance and danger of image in media and journalistic work, especially since we live in the era of the image.
Finally, the paper closes off with offering a proposal for a code of conduct that is an editorial charter that includes professional standards and rules that can contribute to regulating the right to image in media and press organizations in the State of Kuwait.
Keywords: Media, Mass Communication, Photographs, Self-regulation, Media Ethics, privacy, code of conduct.

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Author :Mundr Kafafe
Discipline :Arabic Language and Literature

Poeticness in Ibn Tabataba’s “ʿiyār aš-šiʿr” (in Arabic).

Works of Classical Arabic literary criticism are very rich in trajectories, which spew views that come close to those found in Modern Literary Criticism, especially to those related to poeticness. Classical Arabic Criticism represents a constituting component and ‘gushing spring’ of a nation’s literary and linguistic legacy. The present paper is an attempt to shed light on some elements of poeticness in Ibn Tabataba’s “ʿiyār aš-šiʿr” (died in 322 AH.).
The analysis has been divided into three parts. The first involves offering a brief survey of modern poeticness and some relevant conceptions. In the second, the study has touched upon the relationship between Ibn Tabataba’s critical views and poeticness. Finally, in the third part, the study has discussed three poetic devices discussed in Ibn Tabataba’s book, namely: 'substitution' (or tabdῑl), stylistic cohesion (or tansῑq), and ‘semantic extension’ (taʿrῑḍ, or taḫaffi), which can be looked at as near-synonyms to the label poeticness, as used by Ibn Tabataba.
Keywords: Poetics. Literary criticism. ʿiyār aš-šiʿr. Ibn Tabataba.
 

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Author :Ahmad Abu Dalu
Discipline :Arabic Language and Literature

The Principles of Discourse Analysis Contributed by Arabic Linguistics (in Arabic).

This study attempts to explore the most important aspects of contribution in the field of "discourse analysis" in Arabic linguistics, especially in relation to textual practice, in order to record the contributions of the old linguists in text analysis, and to authenticate objectively "discourse linguistics". In order to present an approach that would formulate an initial conception of "discourse analysis" that has Arabic origins and character.
The study has adopted an inductive-descriptive approach to report on the most important contributions of Arab linguists in the field of discourse analysis, and it has been showed that Arabic linguistic research, in some respects, exceeded the sentence borders to deal with issues related to the principles of discourse analysis at two levels: the theoretical and the practical (textual applications). This has been evident in the sub-fields of Arabic linguistics, represented in text and discourse (especially grammar and rhetorics), and textual applications that relied on these sciences (such as the analytical linguistic interpretation).
The study has also revealed that the advanced Arab linguists have laid down important foundations for discourse analysis or what can be referred to by extension as ‘discourse linguistics’, including the terminology pertinent to discourse linguistics, such as text grammar, stylistic choices and others.
Keywords: Discourse analysis, text grammar, stylistic choices, discourse linguistics, Arabic linguistics.

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Author :Omar Abunawas, Haitham Althawbih
Discipline :Arabic Language and Literature

A Diagnostic Review of the Description of the Measurement Terminology by Linguists: "Al-Motla’ib" Measurement as a Case Study (in Arabic).

This study purports to investigate one of the descriptive labels that restricted linguistic measurement in Arabic, that is Al-Motla’ib Measurement. The study seeks to offer an authentic account of this term, trace  it back in the sources and references of the language, study its scientific dimensions, show the difference between it and the other types of measurement descriptive designations, and highlight the language issues that touched on it.
The study starts off with an introduction that deals with the concept of measurement, its description and conditions, and then it moves on to examine the term "Al-Motla’ib" measurement literally and technically. It also traces the historical aspect of this term in the linguistic sources and references. The paper, in the first part, studies also its descriptive synonyms and its relevant governing rules; it devotes the second part to analyze the linguistic issues for which this type of measurement is used, to classify it from certain specific linguistic perspectives, and to discuss it from a modern linguistic outlook.
The study wraps up with a number of conclusions, the most important of which is that Seebaweih was the first to use this kind of measurement and it is him who coined the label Al-Motla’ib Analogy for it, as part of the inductive exponential measurement, and that some of the linguists gave it another designation, which is the Stable Measurement, which was steadily and measurably used.
Keywords: Linguistic Measurement- "Al-Motla’ib"- Stable Measurement.
 

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Author :Fadwa Nusairat
Discipline :History

The Zionist Movement in Palestine (1911-1914): Filisteen Newspaper as a Source (in Arabic).

This study analyses and discusses the role of the newspaper Filisteen (lit. Palestine), which was published in 1911, as one of the most prominent sources for research that characterizes the Zionist Movement and its activity in Palestine, and that represented one the most important means of cultural resistance against Zionist activity.  Its emergence coincided with the beginning of the penetration of this activity and it played its first role and had great influence in the Arab public opinion regarding the situation in Palestine. The main objective for selecting this topic is to reveal the historical role that Filisteen newspaper played in confronting Zionist activity, especially after the Turkish nationalism revealed its true face through its pan-Turanianism.
The paper has tackled essential topics, the first of which is the Palestinian Press in the Ottoman Era, which has been discussed in brief from its inception until 1914. This included giving an overview of Issa Al Issa life, its chief editor and founder. Then, it discusses the role of Filisteen in resisting the Zionist activity in Palestine to establish their independent state. This has been done by highlighting the role the newspaper played in facing the danger of Zionist immigration and settlement and its attempt to stir up chivalry in the hearts of Ottomans in order to stop the Zionist activity in Palestine, as a state having the Ottoman subordination. The paper also sheds light on the process of purchasing and selling lands and the manifestations of the Zionist economic activity, especially the commercial and agricultural activities and contributing to establishing the infrastructure of ports and transportation that facilitate their activities. Finally, the newspaper's attitude towards the cultural, social and educational activity of the Zionists in Palestine has been highlighted.
The study has adopted the analytical-descriptive historical methodology by collecting information from primary sources, then studying, analysing, criticizing, classifying, and linking the information, and presenting it in a scientific historical manner. The study has arrived at a number of conclusions: firstly, Filisteen newspaper attempted to alert the Palestinian public to the danger of the Zionists possessing of lands; secondly, it invited them to defend their lands by forming associations to purchase lands, and thirdly, it exposed the relationship between the Ottoman officials and the Zionist colonizer.
Keywords: Palestine (Felesteen Newspaper), Zionist Movement, Ottoman Empire, Immigration, Settlement.
 

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