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Volume :38 Issue : 149 2020      Add To Cart                                                                    Download

The Hungarian Refugee Crisis in the Ottoman Empire (1849-1851) (in Arabic).

Auther : Yousef Omar

This study provides with a historical introduction to the Hungarian War of Independence against Austria that took place between 1848 and 1849. The revolution was led by Lajos Kossuth, but it failed due to Russia's intervention.
As a result, thousands of Hungarian refugees left Hungary out of fear that Austria and Russia would retaliate against them. The Ottoman Empire allowed the refugees to cross its borders and reside there. However, not only did Russia and Austria demand the Ottoman Empire for the immediate extradition of the refugees, but they also threatened them with war if they refused to comply. The study also explores the Ottoman Empire’s proposal to the Hungarian refugees, in which they were asked to convert to Islam in order to avoid their extradition; some refugees accepted the offer while others refused. Moreover, the paper refers to Kossuth's letter to Palmerston on the 20th of September 1849, in which he mentions the details of the refugees' situation. The conditions of the Hungarian refugees, their integration into the Ottoman Empire’s society and its institutions were all examined. Furthermore, the study addresses the understanding that was finally reached between the Ottoman Empire and Austria; Kossuth and the refugees were allowed to leave the Ottoman Empire. On the 1st of September 1851 Kossuth and 51 Hungarian refugees left Ottoman land and headed first to Britain before moving to the United States, which became Kossuth’s country of residence.
The study relies on many sources and references in English and Turkish. Ottoman documents were either not available, or they were irrelevant to the subject of the research.
Keywords: Hungarian Refugees, Ottoman Empire, Austria, Russia, Kossuth.

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