Journal of Law

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Volume : 47 Issue : 181 2021

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Author :Dr. Eman A. Alsaif - Prof. Ali M. Alghamdi
Discipline :Geography

Spatial Thinking based on GIS from Constructivist Learning Theory Perspective: Literary Review.

Objectives: The study aimed at providing a literary review from a perspective that links three axes: constructivist learning theory, spatial thinking and geographic information systems technology (GIS). It also aimed at clarifying the strengths of each axis on one hand and the interconnection of these axes on the other.
Method: The study was based on deductive-inductive method in analyzing previous studies and reaching the possibility of linking the study axes in a way that enables providing educational technical application; appropriated for a specific educational stage, especially for its first grades. The study is a theoretical review. Thus, it requires only literary sources that dealt with constructivist learning theory, geographical education, spatial thinking, and geographic information systems. These sources are books, scientific research and models of geographic information systems applications in education on the World Wide Web.
Results: The study indicated the nature of constructivist theory, clarified the importance of spatial thinking and the role of geographic information systems technology in education. The study also presented a proposal to link these aspects while highlighting some challenges.
Conclusion: The study indicated the importance of spatial thinking in geographical education, its strong relationship with constructivist learning theory and the geographic information systems (GIS). This is because the constructivist theory includes constructivist principles that depend on critical thinking and analysis in order to achieve progress in building knowledge. Furthermore, the capabilities of geographic information systems in presenting scientific material and interacting with it technically are quality educational means that stimulate exploration, self-learning, and knowledge -building, especially with software adaptation of these systems.

Keywords: Geographic education, Spatial thinking, Constructive learning theory, Geographic information systems (GIS).

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Author :Dr. Tareq A. Aldoub
Discipline :Statistics

Using Time Series Analysis Methods to Predict the Total Crimes in Kuwait.

Objectives: This study aims to predict the total number of crimes in the State of Kuwait to reach future accurate criminal data to be used by security forces for security planning process, especially in the field of crime prevention.
Method: Box and Jenkins methodology were used as one of the methods of analyzing time series; SARIMA model was used to predict the total number of crimes in the State of Kuwait based on the total number of monthly crimes data issued by the Research and Studies Center - Ministry of Interior in Kuwait from 1/2001 to 12/2017 to compare SARIMA models through AIC, AICC, BIC standards.
Results: The study shows that the optimal among SARIMS models is the model SARIMA (1,1,1) (0,1,2)12. It is used to predict the total number of crimes in Kuwait until the end of 2020.
Conclusion: The study concludes that decision makers should take good care of developing complete criminal statistics system in all of its stages and give it considerable attention in order to obtain accurate predictions that help in combating potential crimes.

Keywords: Kuwait, Forecast, Crime, Seasonal Changes, SARIMA Model.

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Author :Dr. Hatoon A. AL Fassi
Discipline :Women's History

Citizenship of Saudi Women between the Legal and the Lived Reality: The Moment of Marrying a Non-national.

Objectives: This paper aims at finding solutions to the discriminatory problem that Arab Gulf women in general, and Saudi women, in particular, are facing in maintaining their citizenship. They are not allowed to pass their nationalities to their children when they get married to non-nationals. It also aims to show the present and future economic, social, security perils and consequences of this policy on state and society.
Method: This paper is using the historical, investigative, analytical method through the resources written on citizenship, and the modern state. It also analyzes the legal texts in relation to the local activism and the international treaties signed by the state. The paper's samples are women's voices inside and outside the kingdom.
Results: The paper finds that Saudi women passing their nationality to their children is possible and necessary to secure stability on the political, the social, the security, and the economic levels.
Conclusion: The study sees that for Saudi women to realize full citizenship, all forms of discrimination should be removed by enabling them to extend their nationality to their children like their fellow male citizens.

Keywords: Citizenship, Female citizen, Extending nationality, International Treaties, National constitutions, Equality, Activism, Saudi women.

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Author :Dr. Bashayer S. ALGhanim
Discipline :Law

Voluntary Loss of Nationality and Its Consequential Effect on The Spouse and Minor Children: A Study on The Kuwaiti Nationality Law in Comparison with The Saudi and Omani Laws.

Objectives: To understand what is meant by voluntary loss of nationality, to discover the difference between relinquishment of nationality and renunciation and presenting forms of voluntary loss of nationality and its conditions, taken from the Kuwaiti, Saudi and Omani laws. The study also aims to reveal the aspects of deficiencies in these three law texts, then presents suggestions to handle them.
Method: The study follows the conclusion methodology based on analysis and comparison. It reviews the provisions for voluntary loss of nationality in Kuwaiti law, analyzes and compares them to texts from Saudi and Omani laws then reveals loopholes therein and suggests ways to handle them.
Results: The existence of differences in the definitions of relinquishment and renunciation of nationality respectively; failure to define a specific age at which a citizen may relinquish his/her nationality; and that a foreign wife who has acquired Kuwaiti nationality through marriage loses her Kuwaiti nationality upon regaining her foreign nationality after the marriage ends. As for minor children who acquire nationality through their mother, they continue to enjoy Kuwaiti nationality in the event that their mother voluntary naturalized a foreign nationality.
Conclusion: The study recommends the necessity of adopting renunciation of nationality not relinquishment, adding the case of regaining original foreign nationality as grounds that constitute voluntary loss of nationality. The study also recommends that children shouldn't lose their Kuwaiti nationality but they should do so when their mother acquires a foreign nationality.

Keywords: Nationality, Voluntary loss of nationality, Renunciation of nationality, Relinquishment of nationality, KSA nationality Law, Omani nationality Law, Naturalized person, Minor children, Voluntary naturalization.

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Author :Dr. Abdulsadek H. Abdulsadek
Discipline :Mass Communication

The Dialogue Strategy in Public Relations Practice: A Comparative Study between Government Organizations in Bahrain and Egypt.

Objectives: The purpose of this study is to identify factors that influence dialogue strategy in (PR) in Bahraini and Egyptian governmental organizations and to find out the attitudes toward dialogue strategy among PR practitioners in these organizations.
Method: The study used survey method applyed to a sample of 274 (PR) participants and their managers in Bahraini and Egyptian governmental organizations.
Results: The results showed that the factors that enhance dialogue practice were: (PR) practitioners skills in dealing with conflict, organization history, involvement and commitment among the organization group members, the available resources such as money and time, level of credibility, previous negative attitudes, the level of opposition, top management view represent by the (PR), the number of participants in dialogue, serious work away from personal differences, and the economic situation of the organization.
Conclusion: There is a significant impact of the dialogue strategy on the performance of the public relations in Bahraini and Egyptian government organizations.

Keywords: Government organizations, Communication strategies, Dialogue strategy.

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Author :Dr. Ali A. Abdulla
Discipline :Media

Communication Practices Nature of the Election Campaigns in the Kingdom of Bahrain: An Applied Study on the Parliamentary Elections 2018.

Objectives: The aim of this study is to explore the media strategies that were adopted by the winner candidates (MPs) in the parliamentary elections before and during their election campaigns. This study also explores various means of communication employed by the candidates.
Method: This study is a descriptive research that is based on a survey in order to reach certain information about the subject study. A questionnaire was handed to (intended) sample of thirty-seven MPs elected in 2018. Five of the current MPs were also interviewed besides five of political media and elections experts.
Results: Based on the analysis of the data, the research concluded that large ratio of the MPs are aware of the importance of setting media plans for electoral campaigns, and that they highly depend on personal communicating means.
Conclusion: The researcher reached set of recommendations; the most important of which was that planning for the electoral campaign precedes the candidacy by a period of no less than two years. Also, the plan has to be prepared by professionals and experts who use means that read in the future.

Keywords: Communication practices, Election campaigns, Bahrain. MPs


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Author :Prof. Mishari A. Almusa
Discipline :Arabic Language

Arguments and Representatives in Digital Texts of Saudi Ministry of Health in Controlling Corona Pandemic Prevalence.

Objectives: The study aims at addressing the relation between the old Aristotle's thesis on persuasive rhetoric, that had divided arguments into three elements: ethos, pathos, and logos, and the modern thesis of the Moroccan scholar Zakariyya Al-Surti's of the three representations on: the self, the receiver and the theme.
Method: The study conducted a practical approach of the two thesis mainly on examples of digital texts by Saudi Ministry of Health. The rhetoric of these examples aimed at persuading people regarding the necessity of social distancing in an attempt to fight the spread of Corona pandemic. The study was divided into introduction, a theoretical and a practical part then a conclusion of the most important results. The theoretical part discusses the concept of the digital text, its platforms, Aristotle's arguments and Al Surti's representations, while the practical part exmines models of digital thetoric in the light of the two thesis. The study was applied on the digital rhetoric of the Saudi Ministry of Health through examining texts that contain the three persuasive arguments of Aristotle in addition to Al Surti's three representations.
Results: The study showed that the two thesis complement each other. The persuasive rhetoric in its new digital format enables both the author and the receiver to explore new horizons in expressing and receiving. It also gives the author new potentials that the traditional persuasive texts did not give.  
Conclusion: The study highly recommended examining digital texts and considering the problem of changing the mean of communication between the author and the receiver from paper into digital form. Also, since the current study has approached digital texts with Aristotle's and al-Surti's thesis, it is significantly important that future researchers examine digital texts conducting a stylistic approach.

Keywords: Aristotle's rhetoric, Al-Surti's representatives, Rhetoric of digital texts.

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Author :Dr. Sami A. Hassan
Discipline :Geography

Heritage Villages in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Tourism Development: Ouda Sudir Heritage Village as a Model.

Objectives: The study aims to reflect the importance of heritage tourism in Saudi Arabia, its role in attracting citizens and those who are interested in urban heritage in order to stimulate heritage tourism. The study also sheds light on the experience of reviving Ouda Sudair located north of Riyadh.
Method: The study conducted a descriptive analytical approach, regional approach, SWOT analysis and cartographic method, using (G.I.S), Microsoft Excel, and SPSS. It relied on releases issued by Supreme Commission for Tourism and National Heritage, and the field study by a questionnaire distributed to study the characteristics of visitors and their attitudes towards heritage tourism and Ouda Sudair.
Results: The total number of heritage villages in Saudi Arabia within the Program of Developing Traditional Villages is about (64). Ouda Sudair is characterized by its proximity to the main tourist market in Riyadh, the availability of elements for touristic offer, infrastructure networks, local community interaction with the Development of Heritage Villages Program, besides the well-preserved village urban heritage in most of its ancient forms.
Conclusion: The study concluded the necessity of involving the local population in sustainable tourism development, solving the problems of ownership disputes with the owners of urban heritage sites, enhancing Heritage Villages Program publicity, and including a module on urban heritage and how to preserve it in the educational curricula.

Keywords: Heritage tourism, Heritage villages, Sustainable tourism development, Ouda Sudair, SWOT analysis

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Author :Dr. Nouf R. Almutairi - Dr. Eman M. Elashmawy
Discipline :Special Education

Challenges that Face Students of Special Education Departments in Saudi Arabian Universities during The Total Transformation to E-learning System in COVID-19 Pandemic.

Objectives: To discover the challenges that are facing students of special education departments in Saudi universities during the total transformation to the E-learning system during the emergence of Corona Virus pandemic in light of some variables.
Method: The researchers used a descriptive analytical method as it suits the nature of the study. The sample consisted of 500 students of both genders. A questionnaire of 30 items was developed to tackle the challenges. Validity and reliability of the instrument were verified. The data was analyzed by SPSS.  
Results: Results show that the questionnaire items as a whole posed challenge for students during the period of the total transformation to the E-learning system during emergence of Corona Virus. Challenges related to the nature of curriculum represented the biggest challenges, followed by challenges that are related to faculty members, then personal challenges and motivations toward E-learning, then technical challenges. There were also differences in the participants' responses based on gender for the benefit of females, educational level in favor of bachelor's degree, type of program in favor of the governmental, and place of residence in favor of the village.
Conclusion: The results confirmed the importance of providing training courses and workshops, by E-learning specialist, to increase students experience in using distance learning system and overcoming the problems that prevent them from benefiting from these systems.

Keywords: Challenges, Students of special education departments, E-learning, Corona Virus.

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Author :Dr. Saad M. AlQuhtani
Discipline :Urban Planning

The Most Important Characteristics of Commuting Patterns for Najran University Staff Members and Students.مقدمة

Objectives: An evaluation and analysis of commuting patterns for faculty staff and students of Najran University, located about 50km from the city center with no developed residential neighborhood near the campus.
Method: A field study was conducted using 1150 questionnaires taken by all the University faculty members and staff in addition to the students. The study sought to investigate the characteristics of their trips to the university, their future transportation preferences and whether it is possible to find residence in the nearby neighborhood.
Results: The university is far from the residence of the majority of staff residence, private vehicles is the most common mean of commuting, the journey to university is relatively too long in distance and time, many of the university staff prefer to use trains and buses if available, and also want to live close to the university after developing its neighborhoods.
Conclusion: The paper was concluded with some polices and measures that should be taken to improve the current situation and develop a sustainable transportation system, such as encouraging planning and economic policies that reduce using private vehicles, besides activating policies that help to shorten the distance between the staff homes and the University campus.

Keywords: Travel patterns, Trip, Public transportation, Transportation demand management, Najran University.

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Author :Dr. Moudhi M. Alzoman
Discipline :Human Resource Management

The Impact of Transformational Leadership on the Implementation of Knowledge Management: A Field Study on a Sample of Government Agencies Employees in Riyadh.

Objectives: The aim of this study is to empirically investigate the influence of the transformational leadership on the implementation of the Knowledge management in the central government agencies in Riyadh; which dimensions of Transformational leaderships (idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation and Individual consideration) are perceived to be more influential from the employees' point of view.
Method: An analytical descriptive method was used in this study as a questionnaire was used by the researcher. The study has analyzed the data from a questionnaire (that indicate good level of reliability and validity). Multi-phases inspection was applied on a sample of 600 employees belonging to 21 public organizations in Riyadh city. Data was analyzed with suitable means.
Results: The findings revealed that the implementation of transformational leadership leads to boosting the implementation of the four dimensions of knowledge management in the central government agencies in Riyadh. The findings also indicate the importance of the individual consideration in Knowledge Management where leaders through supporting the employees motivate them to share their knowledge to achieve the organizational goals.
Conclusion: The research results stress the importance of having a transformational leadership that supports of knowledge management; leadership that has a clear vision for diagnosing knowledge of its different types, besides the ability to choose qualified individuals who possess knowledge, engage them and considering their views to ensure that one vision prevails in the organization.

Keywords: Transformational leadership, Knowledge management.

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Author :Dr. Fatima S. AlSalem
Discipline :Electronic Media

The Power of Social Media Influencers: A Study of Public Perception of Credibility among Kuwaitis.

Objectives: This study aims to explore the perceived credibility of social media influencers and its effect on purchase decisions. The study does that through 3 axes that have to do with attraction, trust and experience. It also aimed to investigate the relationship between satisfaction with content promoted via social media and its relation to purchase intention.
Method: The present study uses the surveying methodology through a cross-sectional survey that asked the 1148 respondents (50.4% N=593 males and 49.6% N=584 females) to identify the nature and motive behind their social media use, overall satisfaction regarding the content, and purchase decisions of products and services promoted by influencers.
Results: The analysis of the data indicated that comedy and entertainment influencers are the most preferred type of influencers, while fashion influencers ``fashionistas'' are the least preferred. Based on the results of the regression analysis, positive significant relationship was indicated between the satisfactions with the social media content, realizing the credibility and between Purchase decisions; users' satisfaction with social media content is positively related to decisions to purchasing decisions of products promoted by the influencers.
Conclusion: The study showed the huge influence of social media influencers on purchase decisions as attraction, trust and experience are all vital factors in the purchase decision.

Keywords: Social media influencers, SMI, Influencers, Fashionista, Credibility, Purchase intention.

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Aug 09, 2020

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