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Volume :10 Issue : 2 1982      Add To Cart                                                                    Download

Sultan Abdul-Hameed II and the System of Espionage in the Ottoman Empire

Auther : Jassem Hassan

The reign of Sultan abdulhameed II that covered the period from 1876 to 1990 was characterized by a number of server disturbances in a number of areas. The Ottoman Empire. Faced internal and external threats due to its general weakness. In order to guarantee his personal safety, to hold power as long as possible, and to the stop increasing influence and activities of the opposition, Sultan Abdulhameed relied upon an espionage system completely. This became one of the characteristics of his reign. Abdulhameed’s spies did not restrict themselves to chasing the enemies of the empires of the empire but exercised their powers against all the citizens of the country. They did not gestate to threaten anyone’s security or contentment. Abdulhameed’s doubts played a great role in his increasing dependence on espionage services. However, if we can justify some of this behavior, we cannot justify all of it since it was a result of the sultan’s imagination and illusions. The espionage system, which the Sultan established, failed to achieve its objectives. In 1908 he faced a revolution, which obliged him to accept the constitution. In the following year he faced another revolution, which ended his reign.


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