Kuwait-University-Journal-of-Law-header
Search
Kuwait Journal of Science

Previous Issues

Advance Search
Year : From To Vol
Issue Discipline:
Author

Volume :8 Issue : 1 1981      Add To Cart                                                                    Download

Heavy oil recovery by steam-driven hydrocarbon slugs from linear porous packs

Auther : ABBAS A. ALIKHAN AND S. M. FAROUQ ALI

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Kuwait, and Department of Mineral Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

 

ABSTRACT

 

This work is principally concerned with an experimental study of oil recovery from a porous pack by the injection of a light hydrocarbon slug, followed by a steam slug, which is in turn driven by a conventional water-flood. The experiments involved fluid displacements in two glass bead packs having a rectangular internal cross-section of 4.45 x 9.53 cm and 122 cm length, overlain and underlain by 45.7 cm thick sandpacks to simulate the adjacent formations, and insulated on the sides. The sandpack initially contained a residual oil saturation or a high initial oil saturation, corresponding to the irreducible water saturation. Drakeol 33 and Drakeol 35 (viscosities of 152 and 209 cp at 25°C respectively) were employed as the inplace oils, while iso-octane, Soltrol C, Soltrol 170, Kendex 0837, Drakeol 9, and Drakeol 15 and three mixtures of Soltrol C and Drakeol 33, Kendex 0837 and Drakeol 9, and Drakeol 9 and Drakeol 33 (viscosities of 0.5, 1.3, 2.0, 1 1.3, 23.4, 49.4, 6.4, 17.4, 73.3 cp at 25°C respectively) were used as the light hydrocarbon slug materials. Light hydrocarbon slug sizes of about 5, 10 and 25% were employed, while the steam slug size ranged from 19 to 66% PV, with an average of 35.7% PV. The steam average temperature was 169°C and the steam injection rate ranged from 3.4 to 45.7 m/day. It was found that the light hydrocarbon slug injected prior to the steam slug in a sandpack initially containing a residual oil saturation improved the oil recovery as compared to a straight steam slug run. In view of the prevailing adverse mobility ratio, the light hydrocarbon mixes with the original inplace oil and helps to lower its viscosity. This viscosity is further reduced by the heat from the injected steam slug, leading to an improvement in the mobility ratio, and hence an improvement in the displacement efficiency. A large proportion of the light hydrocarbon slug is recovered by the steam distillation effects. It is concluded that from the recovery ratio (volume of oil recovered divided by hydrocarbon slug volume) point of view, it is advantageous to use a low viscosity light hydrocarbon slug, and a small slug size. The optimum slug size depends on the inplace oil, as well as the steam slug size, for a given steam temperature. The temperature profiles and the heat loss rate measurement indicated that the combination light hydrocarbon slug--steam slug process utilises the maximum amount of heat injected, hence increasing the thermal efficiency of the process. The injected water effectively recovers the heat contained in the hot porous medium, transporting it farther downstream; however, the recovery of the heat contained in the adjacent fomations is low.

Kuwait Journal of Science
Journal of Law

You are Visitor No.

55202

Journal of Law
Journal of Law
Tell your friendsJournal of Law
Journal of Law

Last Updated

Jun 19, 2012

Journal of Law
Journal of Law
Journal of Law

Please enter your email Here to receive our news

Journal of Law