Kuwait-University-Journal-of-Law-header
Search
Kuwait Journal of Science

Previous Issues

Advance Search
Year : From To Vol
Issue Discipline:
Author

Volume :36 Issue : 1 2009      Add To Cart                                                                    Download

Understanding sources of airborne water soluble metals in Lahore, Pakistan

Auther : TAUSEEF A. QURAISHI*, JAMES J. SCHAUER** and YUANXUN ZHANG**

* IEER, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan. Email: tquraishi@uet.edu.pk

** Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA. Email: jschauer@engr.wisc.edu

 

ABSTRACT

 

Lahore, the second largest city of Pakistan with a population of over 10 million, is growing at a rate of 3.32 percent per year. This is accompanied by a large increase in the number of motor vehicles in recent years (over 37 % average annual increase during last the 5 years) and some industrialization. This air quality study, undertaken during March-April 2006, indicated high levels of PM10 which ranged between 158 and 733 µg/m3 with an average of 360 µg/m3. All measurements exceeded the USEPA as well as EU 24-hour standard values. Concentrations of 23 elements in water extracts of PM10 were determined by ICP-OES along with ions chlorides, nitrates, sulfates, ammonium and potassium by ion chromatography. The concentrations were generally low except for crustal elements of calcium, magnesium and sodium, and toxic metals cadmium, lead and zinc. Higher concentration of crustal elements was expected due to the arid nature of the area, suggesting greater contribution of wind-blown and re-suspended road dust to PM10. Nitrates, sulfates and ammonium were also measured in relatively high concentrations indicating the contributions by secondary aerosols. Principal Component Analysis showed that greatest contributors to PM10 were industrial sources followed by secondary aerosols and mobile sources.

 

Keywords: ICP-OES; Lahore; NEQS; PM10; Water-soluble metals.

 

Kuwait Journal of Science
Journal of Law

You are Visitor No.

55656

Journal of Law
Journal of Law
Tell your friendsJournal of Law
Journal of Law

Last Updated

Jun 19, 2012

Journal of Law
Journal of Law
Journal of Law

Please enter your email Here to receive our news

Journal of Law