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Volume :35 Issue : 2 2008      Add To Cart                                                                    Download

Characteristics and evaluation of urban rainwater at Kuwait

Auther : T. RASHID, A. Al-HADDAD, S. EBRAHIM, M. FARHAN, H. BHANDARY, F. MARZOUK

Hydrology and Water Management Department, Water Resources Division, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, P.O. Box 24885, Safat 13109, Kuwait, Email: ahadad@safat.kuv.edu.kw

 

ABSTRACT

 

Rainwater samples collected from November 2005 to January 2006 were analyzed and the results were evaluated in order to consider rainwater harvesting (RWH) a possible source of water source in Kuwait. The results showed that the rainwater was slightly acidic to neutral, and contained all major cations and anions (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, SO42- and Cl-); trace elements (Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) below detection limits; nitrogenous compounds in the form of NO3-, NO2- and NH4+; organics such as total organic carbon (TOC) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH); bacterial indicators such as total coliform bacteria intermittently at high and levels; and no faecal coliform bacteria. The source of cations and anions (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ and SO42-) was traced to non-sea-salt (NSS) and the source of NO3-, NO2-, NH4+ and TOC was traced to atmospheric pollution emanating particularly from traffic. The source of coliform bacteria was attributed to airborne soil dust. A comparison of the concentrations of physicochemical, organic and bacteriological parameters with guidelines for drinking water guidelines demonstrated compliance (except with regard to turbidity and total coliform bacteria) indicating that rainwater could be used after simple treatments, such as filtering and chlorination.

 

Keywords: Bacteria, drinking water guidelines, nitrogenous compounds, rainwater samples, treatment.

 

 

 

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